News · Politics

Dying in a Leadership Vacuum

Who to trust?

New England Journal of Medicine

The New England Journal of Medicine for the first time in 208 years steps into politics with an editorial signed by all of the journal’s editors:

With no good options to combat a novel pathogen, countries were forced to make hard choices about how to respond. Here in the United States, our leaders have failed that test. They have taken a crisis and turned it into a tragedy.

When it comes to the response to the largest public health crisis of our time, our current political leaders have demonstrated that they are dangerously incompetent. We should not abet them and enable the deaths of thousands more Americans by allowing them to keep their jobs.

Scientific American

This follows Scientific America endorsing someone for President for the first time in it’s 187 years:

The evidence and the science show that Donald Trump has badly damaged the U.S. and its people—because he rejects evidence and science. The most devastating example is his dishonest and inept response to the COVID-19 pandemic, which cost more than 190,000 Americans their lives by the middle of September. He has also attacked environmental protections, medical care, and the researchers and public science agencies that help this country prepare for its greatest challenges. That is why we urge you to vote for Joe Biden, who is offering fact-based plans to protect our health, our economy and the environment.


Geology 100: Basic Vocabulary

Common prefixes, suffixes, and roots

  • clast: broken
  • -cline: tilted, gradient
  • de-: reduce
  • dis-: separation, opposite
  • ex-: out of, away from
  • feld: field
  • geo-: earth
  • hydro: water
  • iso: same
  • -lith: stone
  • -meso: middle
  • meta-: change
  • -morph: form, shape
  • plagio-: combining form
  • paleo-: ancient
  • pelagic: pertaining to ocean
  • pluto-: deep seated (Roman god of underworld)
  • pre-: before
  • proto-: first
  • pyro-: fire
  • spar: crystalline materials
  • -sphere: ball
  • strat-: layer
  • stria: small groove
  • sub-: under
  • super-: above
  • syn-: together
  • tecto-: build or construct. Geology means movement of structures


Here are some examples based on the above:

  • decline: reduce tilted.
  • pyroclast: fire broken.
  • stratosphere: layer sphere
  • hydrosphere: water sphere
  • isomorph: same shape
  • metamorphic: change shape
  • mesolith: middle stone
  • feldspar: field crystalline structure
  • plagioclase feldspar:


The 8 most common elements in Earth’s crust (by mass) are: 

- 46.6% Oxygen (O)
– 27.7% Silicon (Si)
– 8.1% Aluminum (Al)
– 5.0% Iron (Fe)
– 3.6% Calcium (Ca)
– 2.8% Sodium (Na)
– 2.6% Potassium (K)
– 2.1% Magnesium (Mg)

  • Potassium feldspar, potassium (K), aluminum (Al), silicon (Si), and oxygen (O).

Geology 100: Exam 1 review

Lecture 08: 2020-10-01 — Thu Oct 1, 2020


No class previous two lectures

  • Strategy:
    • Review powerpoint
    • Listen lectures
  • Formation of the Universe, Solar System, Earth
    • How did planets form
    • How old is Earth
    • What is core of earth made of
    • Order of layers in Earth
    • How did atmosphere get oxygen?
    • Difference between inner and outer (terrestrial vs jovian)
  • Minerals
    • ionic vs covalent bonding
    • proton, neutron, electron
    • Hardest mineral?
    • Why is hardest?
    • Which two most abundant elements in crust of the earth
    • What are silicates?
    • Why are Feromagnesian sillicates dark?
    • Softest mineral (Mohs hardness scale)
    • What is cleavage in minerals?
    • What are isotopes
    • What is nucleus of atom made of?
    • Definition of a rock
    • What are 3 different types of rocks
    • What is magma? What is lava
    • 3 type of magam: felsic, intermediate, mafic
    • What is obsidian
    • Order of crystallization in the Bowen reaction series
    • Difference between inclusive and exclusive rocks
    • What is porphritic text in igneous rocks
    • Dominant mineral in limestone and marble
    • What kind of rock is coal?
    • What is dominant mineral in salt
    • What is foliation
    • What is difference between intrusive and extrusive rocks
    • Difference between contact and regional metamorphism
  • Volcanoes
    • What is a lahar
    • Most active volcanoe
    • Three different types of volcanoes: shield, cone, strata
    • What is a pyroclastic flow
    • How many active volcanoes in the world?
    • What is a caldera
    • Difference between active, extinct, and dormant volcanoes
    • Which Hawaiian island is likely to erupt
    • Pacific rim of fire is where most composite volcanoes are located
    • What kind of volcano is Mt. St. Helens
    • What type of geologic setting are the Hawaiian islands?
    • What is a Plinian eruption?
    • If Yellowstone erupted today how much ash would fall in New York?
    • what is the difference between a VEI 5 and a VEI 7
    • Which volcano was a VEI 8 eruption 74,000 years ago (caused global climate change for next few years; decrease in homosapian population down to 12,000)