Lecture 17: 2020-11-05
Exam 2: Tues, Nov 10
56 questions; multiple choice; 1.5hrs
Much of the material is definitions or just common sense.
Definition of weathering
Name of mineral that dissolves in carbonic acid
Know different types of physical and chemical weathering
Oxidation, hydrolisis, …
What is exfoliation?
Type of climate where chemical weathering is most effective
Know different agents of erosion (running water, ground water, glaciers, wind)
Which is most effective today
Which was most effect 10k ago
When it comes to mass wasting, what makes a slope stable (or unstable)
Know different types of mass wasting
Slide vs Slump
What is a landslide
What is a creep
What triggered landslide in Peru in 1970?
Running water (rivers)
What are point bars
What is saltation
How does a river carry sediments (e.g. different loads)
dissolved, suspended, bed load
What is river discharge
What is a delta
Largest river in North America
What is a meander stream?
What is oxbow lake
Where are sediments deposited
What may have changed?
What is the water table?
What is a stalactite vs stalagmite
What is porosity? Permeability?
What is an artesian well?
What is an aquifer
What is aquiclude
Why is rain water acidic?
What is karst topography/landscape?
Problems with excessive pumping of ground water
What portion of earth surface is covered by glaciers
What causes ice ages
What’s been happening to glaciers for past 200 years
Different types of glaciers
Where is largest glacier in world today?
What is a moraine? Terminal moraine? Medial moraine?
What kind of moraine is south fork of Long Island
What’s name of last ice age
Why drill in ice in Antarctica? What’s in the core? Climate change
What shape are glacial valleys
When was the last advance of Pleistocene
What happens to sea level when glaciers advance
Eolian is overall term from Greek god
Loess & dunes: wind deposits. What’s difference?
What is deflation surface?
What is desertification
What are barchan dunes? Parabolic dunes
Common prefixes, suffixes, and roots
-cline: tilted, gradient
dis-: separation, opposite
ex-: out of, away from
-morph: form, shape
plagio-: combining form
pelagic: pertaining to ocean
pluto-: deep seated (Roman god of underworld)
spar: crystalline materials
stria: small groove
tecto-: build or construct. Geology means movement of structures
Here are some examples based on the above:
decline: reduce tilted.
pyroclast: fire broken.
stratosphere: layer sphere
hydrosphere: water sphere
isomorph: same shape
metamorphic: change shape
mesolith: middle stone
feldspar: field crystalline structure
The 8 most common elements in Earth’s
crust (by mass) are:
- 46.6% Oxygen (O)
– 27.7% Silicon (Si)
– 8.1% Aluminum (Al)
– 5.0% Iron (Fe)
– 3.6% Calcium (Ca)
– 2.8% Sodium (Na)
– 2.6% Potassium (K)
– 2.1% Magnesium (Mg)
Potassium feldspar, potassium (K), aluminum (Al), silicon (Si), and oxygen (O).
Lecture 08: 2020-10-01 — Thu Oct 1, 2020
No class previous two lectures
Formation of the Universe, Solar System, Earth
How did planets form
How old is Earth
What is core of earth made of
Order of layers in Earth
How did atmosphere get oxygen?
Difference between inner and outer (terrestrial vs jovian)
ionic vs covalent bonding
proton, neutron, electron
Why is hardest?
Which two most abundant elements in crust of the earth
What are silicates?
Why are Feromagnesian sillicates dark?
Softest mineral (Mohs hardness scale)
What is cleavage in minerals?
What are isotopes
What is nucleus of atom made of?
Definition of a rock
What are 3 different types of rocks
What is magma? What is lava
3 type of magam: felsic, intermediate, mafic
What is obsidian
Order of crystallization in the Bowen reaction series
Difference between inclusive and exclusive rocks
What is porphritic text in igneous rocks
Dominant mineral in limestone and marble
What kind of rock is coal?
What is dominant mineral in salt
What is foliation
What is difference between intrusive and extrusive rocks
Difference between contact and regional metamorphism
What is a lahar
Most active volcanoe
Three different types of volcanoes: shield, cone, strata
What is a pyroclastic flow
How many active volcanoes in the world?
What is a caldera
Difference between active, extinct, and dormant volcanoes
Which Hawaiian island is likely to erupt
Pacific rim of fire is where most composite volcanoes are located
What kind of volcano is Mt. St. Helens
What type of geologic setting are the Hawaiian islands?
What is a Plinian eruption?
If Yellowstone erupted today how much ash would fall in New York?
what is the difference between a VEI 5 and a VEI 7
Which volcano was a VEI 8 eruption 74,000 years ago (caused global climate change for next few years; decrease in homosapian population down to 12,000)
The worlds two laziest cats agree with this cartoon:
CppCon moved to Denver, Colorado (technically Aurora, CO) just a few miles from Denver Airport. 1400 people attended from Sept 16-20 and a 150 talks over the 5 days. Additionally, there were 1 and 2 day training classes the weekends before and after the conference.
Gaylord Rocky Mountain Resort hosted CppCon. It’s a huge place that’s very conference oriented though there are some nice pools and rec areas. You are pretty isolated so plan on eating at the nice but overpriced restaurants.
This is the CppCon site for 2019 and 2020
We’re used to seeing the night sky rotate around us but this video uses a fixed point in the night sky so instead the earth is rotating.
Faranak with Notre Dame in the background.