Geology 100: Exam 3 review

Geology 100: Exam 3 Review

  • Last lecture: Thu, Dec 3 (review)
  • Last day: Tues, Dec 8th
  • Final:
    • Tues, Dec 8th around 3pm until 8
    • or Tues, Dec 15th@5:20pm
    • 1.5hr
    • 40 questions
    • Geologic time and Plate Tectonics


  • When did dinosaurs Become extinct
  • How old is earth
  • Which era did dinosaurs live
  • What was the earliest form of life
  • Eras and periods of geologic time table (keep handy)
  • In what era do we live now?
  • Who is father of geology
  • Unconformity
  • Unitarism
  • What isotope for events in past 50k years
  • What is half-life
    • If 25% is left how many half-lives
  • Faunal succession
  • Which isotope is used for organic remains
  • Mesozoic super continent’s name?
  • How old is oldest oceanic crust
  • Given something like east Africa ridge what type of plate boundary
  • Where find submarine trenches and what type of plate boundary
  • How did the Andes mountains form?
  • What did Vine&Matthews explain?
  • What explains magnetic stripes orientation on ocean floor
  • What is mechanism for plate tectonics
  • What type of setting is Iceland
  • Who originated idea of continental drift and what evidence
  • Why was it rejected
  • What is the curie point?
  • What is the lithosphere
  • How were Himmalayan mountains formed
  • What is a transform plate boundary

Geology 100: vocabulary


Physical Weathering

  • Exfoliation: rock breaks apart in layers
    • Igenous rocks
    • Half Dome
    • Stone Mountain, Georgia
  • Frost Wedging
    • Shattered rocks
  • Biological
  • Abrasion: wind, ice, water

Chemical Weathering

  • mineral breakdown
  • Dissolution (dissolver in water)
  • Acid Reactions (water + CO2 carbonic acid); Water + sulfur sulfuric aside
    • H2O + CO2 + CaCO3 –> Ca+2 + 2HCO3-
  • Oxidation
  • Hydration: attachment of water to crystalline structure
  • Hydrolysis: Hydrogen and oxygen in water with rock
  • Solution: rock is dissolved in water
    • pH, temperature
    • evaporite deposits
  • Goldrich Stability series
    • Similar to Bowen’s Reaction Series but for speed to weather
    • Olivine/pyroxene + H2CO3 (acid) to clay
  • Karst landforms
    • limestone sinkhole

Erosion by Gravity

  • Rock fall
    • Talus: debris at base of a steep slope
    • Peru, 1970 Nevado Huascaran
  • Rock Slides
  • Soil Slumps
  • Mud flows
  • Lahar: 1985 Columbia: 70km!
  • Debris flow
  • Creep: leaning poles, bent trees

Erosion by water

  • Point bar: deposits from water slowing
  • Cut Bansk show erosion from fast water
  • River meanders
  • Oxbow lakes (Australian Billabong)
  • Alluvial Fans

Aswan Dam

  • 1960 – 1971
  • Formed Lake Nassar
  • Many economic tenets
  • Many ecological/economic costs

Ground Water

  • Water cycle
    • Percolation: water seeping into ground water
    • Run off to see
    • Evaporation
    • Condenstations
    • Precipitation
    • Transpiration: water from plants)


  • Movement
  • Types: Alpine, Continental

Deserts and Wind Action


Geology 100: Exam 2 review

Lecture 17: 2020-11-05

Exam 2: Tues, Nov 10

56 questions; multiple choice; 1.5hrs

Much of the material is definitions or just common sense.


  • Definition of weathering
  • Name of mineral that dissolves in carbonic acid
  • Know different types of physical and chemical weathering
    • Oxidation, hydrolisis, …
    • What is exfoliation?
  • Type of climate where chemical weathering is most effective
  • Know different agents of erosion (running water, ground water, glaciers, wind)
    • Which is most effective today
    • Which was most effect 10k ago
  • When it comes to mass wasting, what makes a slope stable (or unstable)
  • Know different types of mass wasting
    • Slide vs Slump
    • Rockfall, …
    • What is a landslide
    • What is a creep
  • What triggered landslide in Peru in 1970?

Running water (rivers)

  • What are point bars
  • What is saltation
  • How does a river carry sediments (e.g. different loads)
    • dissolved, suspended, bed load
  • What is river discharge
  • What is a delta
  • Largest river in North America
  • What is a meander stream?
  • What is oxbow lake
  • Aswan Dam
    • Where are sediments deposited
    • What may have changed?
  • What is the water table?
  • What is a stalactite vs stalagmite
  • What is porosity? Permeability?
  • What is an artesian well?
  • What is an aquifer
  • What is aquiclude
  • Why is rain water acidic?
  • What is karst topography/landscape?
  • Problems with excessive pumping of ground water


  • What portion of earth surface is covered by glaciers
  • What causes ice ages
  • What’s been happening to glaciers for past 200 years
  • Different types of glaciers
  • Where is largest glacier in world today?
  • What is a moraine? Terminal moraine? Medial moraine?
  • What kind of moraine is south fork of Long Island
  • What’s name of last ice age
  • Why drill in ice in Antarctica? What’s in the core? Climate change
  • What shape are glacial valleys
  • When was the last advance of Pleistocene
  • What happens to sea level when glaciers advance


  • Eolian is overall term from Greek god
  • Loess & dunes: wind deposits. What’s difference?
  • What is deflation surface?
  • What is desertification
  • What are barchan dunes? Parabolic dunes

Geology 100: Basic Vocabulary

Common prefixes, suffixes, and roots

  • clast: broken
  • -cline: tilted, gradient
  • de-: reduce
  • dis-: separation, opposite
  • ex-: out of, away from
  • feld: field
  • geo-: earth
  • hydro: water
  • iso: same
  • -lith: stone
  • -meso: middle
  • meta-: change
  • -morph: form, shape
  • plagio-: combining form
  • paleo-: ancient
  • pelagic: pertaining to ocean
  • pluto-: deep seated (Roman god of underworld)
  • pre-: before
  • proto-: first
  • pyro-: fire
  • spar: crystalline materials
  • -sphere: ball
  • strat-: layer
  • stria: small groove
  • sub-: under
  • super-: above
  • syn-: together
  • tecto-: build or construct. Geology means movement of structures


Here are some examples based on the above:

  • decline: reduce tilted.
  • pyroclast: fire broken.
  • stratosphere: layer sphere
  • hydrosphere: water sphere
  • isomorph: same shape
  • metamorphic: change shape
  • mesolith: middle stone
  • feldspar: field crystalline structure
  • plagioclase feldspar:


The 8 most common elements in Earth’s crust (by mass) are: 

- 46.6% Oxygen (O)
– 27.7% Silicon (Si)
– 8.1% Aluminum (Al)
– 5.0% Iron (Fe)
– 3.6% Calcium (Ca)
– 2.8% Sodium (Na)
– 2.6% Potassium (K)
– 2.1% Magnesium (Mg)

  • Potassium feldspar, potassium (K), aluminum (Al), silicon (Si), and oxygen (O).

Geology 100: Exam 1 review

Lecture 08: 2020-10-01 — Thu Oct 1, 2020


No class previous two lectures

  • Strategy:
    • Review powerpoint
    • Listen lectures
  • Formation of the Universe, Solar System, Earth
    • How did planets form
    • How old is Earth
    • What is core of earth made of
    • Order of layers in Earth
    • How did atmosphere get oxygen?
    • Difference between inner and outer (terrestrial vs jovian)
  • Minerals
    • ionic vs covalent bonding
    • proton, neutron, electron
    • Hardest mineral?
    • Why is hardest?
    • Which two most abundant elements in crust of the earth
    • What are silicates?
    • Why are Feromagnesian sillicates dark?
    • Softest mineral (Mohs hardness scale)
    • What is cleavage in minerals?
    • What are isotopes
    • What is nucleus of atom made of?
    • Definition of a rock
    • What are 3 different types of rocks
    • What is magma? What is lava
    • 3 type of magam: felsic, intermediate, mafic
    • What is obsidian
    • Order of crystallization in the Bowen reaction series
    • Difference between inclusive and exclusive rocks
    • What is porphritic text in igneous rocks
    • Dominant mineral in limestone and marble
    • What kind of rock is coal?
    • What is dominant mineral in salt
    • What is foliation
    • What is difference between intrusive and extrusive rocks
    • Difference between contact and regional metamorphism
  • Volcanoes
    • What is a lahar
    • Most active volcanoe
    • Three different types of volcanoes: shield, cone, strata
    • What is a pyroclastic flow
    • How many active volcanoes in the world?
    • What is a caldera
    • Difference between active, extinct, and dormant volcanoes
    • Which Hawaiian island is likely to erupt
    • Pacific rim of fire is where most composite volcanoes are located
    • What kind of volcano is Mt. St. Helens
    • What type of geologic setting are the Hawaiian islands?
    • What is a Plinian eruption?
    • If Yellowstone erupted today how much ash would fall in New York?
    • what is the difference between a VEI 5 and a VEI 7
    • Which volcano was a VEI 8 eruption 74,000 years ago (caused global climate change for next few years; decrease in homosapian population down to 12,000)