Lecture 17: 2020-11-05
Exam 2: Tues, Nov 10
56 questions; multiple choice; 1.5hrs
Much of the material is definitions or just common sense.
- Definition of weathering
- Name of mineral that dissolves in carbonic acid
- Know different types of physical and chemical weathering
- Oxidation, hydrolisis, …
- What is exfoliation?
- Type of climate where chemical weathering is most effective
- Know different agents of erosion (running water, ground water, glaciers, wind)
- Which is most effective today
- Which was most effect 10k ago
- When it comes to mass wasting, what makes a slope stable (or unstable)
- Know different types of mass wasting
- Slide vs Slump
- Rockfall, …
- What is a landslide
- What is a creep
- What triggered landslide in Peru in 1970?
Running water (rivers)
- What are point bars
- What is saltation
- How does a river carry sediments (e.g. different loads)
- dissolved, suspended, bed load
- What is river discharge
- What is a delta
- Largest river in North America
- What is a meander stream?
- What is oxbow lake
- Aswan Dam
- Where are sediments deposited
- What may have changed?
- What is the water table?
- What is a stalactite vs stalagmite
- What is porosity? Permeability?
- What is an artesian well?
- What is an aquifer
- What is aquiclude
- Why is rain water acidic?
- What is karst topography/landscape?
- Problems with excessive pumping of ground water
- What portion of earth surface is covered by glaciers
- What causes ice ages
- What’s been happening to glaciers for past 200 years
- Different types of glaciers
- Where is largest glacier in world today?
- What is a moraine? Terminal moraine? Medial moraine?
- What kind of moraine is south fork of Long Island
- What’s name of last ice age
- Why drill in ice in Antarctica? What’s in the core? Climate change
- What shape are glacial valleys
- When was the last advance of Pleistocene
- What happens to sea level when glaciers advance
- Eolian is overall term from Greek god
- Loess & dunes: wind deposits. What’s difference?
- What is deflation surface?
- What is desertification
- What are barchan dunes? Parabolic dunes
Common prefixes, suffixes, and roots
-cline: tilted, gradient
dis-: separation, opposite
ex-: out of, away from
-morph: form, shape
plagio-: combining form
pelagic: pertaining to ocean
pluto-: deep seated (Roman god of underworld)
spar: crystalline materials
stria: small groove
tecto-: build or construct. Geology means movement of structures
Here are some examples based on the above:
decline: reduce tilted.
pyroclast: fire broken.
stratosphere: layer sphere
hydrosphere: water sphere
isomorph: same shape
metamorphic: change shape
mesolith: middle stone
feldspar: field crystalline structure
The 8 most common elements in Earth’s crust (by mass) are:
- 46.6% Oxygen (O)
– 27.7% Silicon (Si)
– 8.1% Aluminum (Al)
– 5.0% Iron (Fe)
– 3.6% Calcium (Ca)
– 2.8% Sodium (Na)
– 2.6% Potassium (K)
– 2.1% Magnesium (Mg)
Potassium feldspar, potassium (K), aluminum (Al), silicon (Si), and oxygen (O).
Lecture 08: 2020-10-01 — Thu Oct 1, 2020
No class previous two lectures
- Review powerpoint
- Listen lectures
- Formation of the Universe, Solar System, Earth
- How did planets form
- How old is Earth
- What is core of earth made of
- Order of layers in Earth
- How did atmosphere get oxygen?
- Difference between inner and outer (terrestrial vs jovian)
- ionic vs covalent bonding
- proton, neutron, electron
- Hardest mineral?
- Why is hardest?
- Which two most abundant elements in crust of the earth
- What are silicates?
- Why are Feromagnesian sillicates dark?
- Softest mineral (Mohs hardness scale)
- What is cleavage in minerals?
- What are isotopes
- What is nucleus of atom made of?
- Definition of a rock
- What are 3 different types of rocks
- What is magma? What is lava
- 3 type of magam: felsic, intermediate, mafic
- What is obsidian
- Order of crystallization in the Bowen reaction series
- Difference between inclusive and exclusive rocks
- What is porphritic text in igneous rocks
- Dominant mineral in limestone and marble
- What kind of rock is coal?
- What is dominant mineral in salt
- What is foliation
- What is difference between intrusive and extrusive rocks
- Difference between contact and regional metamorphism
- What is a lahar
- Most active volcanoe
- Three different types of volcanoes: shield, cone, strata
- What is a pyroclastic flow
- How many active volcanoes in the world?
- What is a caldera
- Difference between active, extinct, and dormant volcanoes
- Which Hawaiian island is likely to erupt
- Pacific rim of fire is where most composite volcanoes are located
- What kind of volcano is Mt. St. Helens
- What type of geologic setting are the Hawaiian islands?
- What is a Plinian eruption?
- If Yellowstone erupted today how much ash would fall in New York?
- what is the difference between a VEI 5 and a VEI 7
- Which volcano was a VEI 8 eruption 74,000 years ago (caused global climate change for next few years; decrease in homosapian population down to 12,000)