Geology 100: vocabulary

Weathering

Physical Weathering

  • Exfoliation: rock breaks apart in layers
    • Igenous rocks
    • Half Dome
    • Stone Mountain, Georgia
  • Frost Wedging
    • Shattered rocks
  • Biological
  • Abrasion: wind, ice, water

Chemical Weathering

  • mineral breakdown
  • Dissolution (dissolver in water)
  • Acid Reactions (water + CO2 carbonic acid); Water + sulfur sulfuric aside
    • H2O + CO2 + CaCO3 –> Ca+2 + 2HCO3-
  • Oxidation
  • Hydration: attachment of water to crystalline structure
  • Hydrolysis: Hydrogen and oxygen in water with rock
  • Solution: rock is dissolved in water
    • pH, temperature
    • evaporite deposits
  • Goldrich Stability series
    • Similar to Bowen’s Reaction Series but for speed to weather
    • Olivine/pyroxene + H2CO3 (acid) to clay
  • Karst landforms
    • limestone sinkhole

Erosion by Gravity

  • Rock fall
    • Talus: debris at base of a steep slope
    • Peru, 1970 Nevado Huascaran
  • Rock Slides
  • Soil Slumps
  • Mud flows
  • Lahar: 1985 Columbia: 70km!
  • Debris flow
  • Creep: leaning poles, bent trees

Erosion by water

  • Point bar: deposits from water slowing
  • Cut Bansk show erosion from fast water
  • River meanders
  • Oxbow lakes (Australian Billabong)
  • Alluvial Fans

Aswan Dam

  • 1960 – 1971
  • Formed Lake Nassar
  • Many economic tenets
  • Many ecological/economic costs

Ground Water

  • Water cycle
    • Percolation: water seeping into ground water
    • Run off to see
    • Evaporation
    • Condenstations
    • Precipitation
    • Transpiration: water from plants)

Glaciers

  • Movement
  • Types: Alpine, Continental

Deserts and Wind Action

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